Ulaanbaatar is situated in north central Mongolia at an altitude of approximately 1,310 meters (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. Due to its high elevation, its comparatively high latitude, its location hundreds of kilometers from any coast, and the effects of the Siberian anticyclone, Ulaanbaatar is also the coldest national capital in the world.
Mongolia Places and Sights
Ulaanbaatar is the capital city of Mongolia and has the only internatioal airport of Mongolia. So, your travel to Mongolia begins here. Situated in north central Mongolia at an altitude of approximately 1,310 meters (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. Due to its high elevation, its comparatively high latitude, its location hundreds of kilometers from any coast, and the effects of the Siberian anticyclone. Ulaanbaatar is also the coldest national capital in the world. The city being the capital is also the largest city of Mongolia and about the half of the population of the country lives here.
There are quite a few interesting destinations and sights to visit with your base in Ulaanbaatar. Gorkhi Terelj National Park, the Statue of Chinggis Khan and Hustai National Park are some of the most famous places to visit. These places are near from Ulaanbaatar and can be visited in a day trip or if you have a few extra days, you have plenty of things to do there.
The area including Ulaanbaatar-the capital of Mongolia ad the provinces of Övörhangai, Arkhangai and Tuv constitute the central Mongolia. The Orkhon Valley, west of Ulaanbaatar, was the center of the Mongol Empire the center of the Uighur Empire, and the birthplace of Mongolian Buddhism. Karakorum, the ancient capital of Mongolia and Erdene Zuu Monastery, Ordu-Baliq the archeological site, Tuvkhun Monastery are the famous tourist destinations of the Central Mongolia.
Other attractions of Central Mongolia include the Hujirt Hotspring that lies 32 miles south of Karakorum, Gorkhi Terelj National Park, Galuut Nature Reserve, Terkhiin Tsagaan Nurr and Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain
One of the 3 largest monasteries in Mongolia and it mostly survived the purges of the 1930s. Located in the Iven valley near the Selenge River, the monastery is about an hour off the main paved road connecting Erdenet and Darkhan. The isolated site surrounded by miles of sparsely populated steppe make it seem as though you are seeing it as it was before the rise of communism and modernization. The monastery was constructed between 1727 and 1736 on orders of the Manchu Emperor Kang Xi in honor of Zanabazar, the 1st Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, or leader of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who invented the Mongolian Soyombo script and is one of Mongolia's most famous artists and influential leaders. Zanabazar's body was interred here in 1788. At its peak, the monastery had 3,000 monks and 40 temples laid out with symmetrical unity according to exacting design specifications by the Emperor of China. The communists closed the monastery, killed several of the monks, and destroyed 10 of the temples in 1937.
Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists.
The Buryat people are descended from various Siberian and Mongol peoples that inhabited the Lake Baikal Region. Then in the 13th century the Mongolians came up and subjugated the various Buryat tribes (Bulgachin, Kheremchin) around Lake Baikal. The name "Buriyad" is mentioned as one of the forest people for the first time in The Secret History of the Mongols (possibly 1240). It says Jochi, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, marched north to subjugate the Buryats in 1207. The Buryats lived along the Angara River and its tributaries at this time. Meanwhile, their component, Barga, appeared both west of Baikal and in northern Buryatia's Barguzin valley. Linked also to the Bargas were the Khori-Tumed along the Arig River in eastern Khövsgöl Province and the Angara. A Tumad rebellion broke out in 1217, when Genghis Khan allowed his viceroy to seize 30 Tumad maidens. Genghis Khan's commander Dorbei the Fierce of the Dörbeds smashed them in response. The Buryats joined the Oirats challenging the imperial rule of the Eastern Mongols during the Northern Yuan period in the late 14th century.
Western Mongolia is a region in Mongolia covering the provinces (or Aimags) of Bayan-Ölgii, Hovd, Uvs, and Zavkhan. It is the most remote region of the country with paved roads from the capital, Ulaanbaatar, ending 200 miles before reaching the eastern most point of Zavkhan. It is also the most ethnically diverse, mountainous, and scenic region of Mongolia, with thousands of years of history. The region is home to the Kazakhs, a Muslim tribe from near the Caspian Sea, and Oirats, or western Mongols, which can be divided into 10 different tribes, as well as Khalkhs, or eastern Mongols. In addition to the ethnic diversity, the region is home to the Altai Mountain Range, with the highest peaks in Mongolia, Lake Uvs, a large saltwater lake, and many smaller lakes, mountains, rivers, forests, and steppe. Spread throughout the region are countless archeological sites with petroglyphs, cave paintings, standing stone monuments, monasteries, and ancient forts that date back as far as 10,000 years.